“Additionally, ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are extragalactic cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10(18) eV.”
“Acceleration to these extreme energies could be due to transients such as massive supernovae or compact object mergers, active-galactic nuclei, or galaxy clusters, though the exact mechanism is unclear.”
JETS OF IONS.
“Active Galactic Nuclei, powered by accretion on a supermassive black hole, eject relativistic jets that interact with the interstellar and intergalactic medium on sub-pc to Mpc scales.”
“Magnetic fields in AGN are observed from pc scales to Mpc scales, e.g. from the non-thermal filaments in the Galactic centre, VLBI polarimetry of radio galaxy cores, to polarization of jets, and radio lobes. They affect the accretion disk, jet collimation and particle acceleration, and contribute significantly to the pressure inside radio lobes.” (AGN = Active Galactic Nuclei).
“We know that on the largest scales there is structure to the Universe: voids, filaments, and clusters (e.g. the cosmic web).”
“Theory tells us the magnetic fields pervade all of this intergalactic space, but as yet there have been no measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. The origin of cosmic fields and their evolution and role in structure formation is unknown.”
KEY TO THE UNIVERSE.
“Magnetism contributes to every astrophysical process on every scale and its study offers considerable opportunity for transformational understanding.”